Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم) the Prophet
During the periof of Jaahiliyyah, the time of ignorance before the coming of Islam to the Arabs, the people still retained good characteristics such as generosity, loyalty and courage, and they used to follow some of the teachings of the religion of Ibraaheem, Prophet Abraham (عليه السلام), such as venerating the Kaaba and making Tawaaf, circumambulation, around it, performing Hajj and ‘Umrah, and offering sacrifices. However, they also had bad and evil customs and traditions, such as fornication, drinking alcohol, consuming ribaa (usury or interest), killing their daughters, oppression of others and worshiping idols.
Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم) saw the evil within his society and kept away from it. He was given an inclination towards solitude, so he used to spend many days and nights alone in the cave of Hiraa’, in the mountains of Makkah, worshiping and praying to his Lord. He hated idols, alcohol and promiscuous conduct, so he never paid any attention to them all his life and Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) spared him from them.
The Start of Messengership
Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) sent Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم) as a prophet, when he was forty years old, to call the people to worship Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Alone and to give up idol-worship. The Quraysh denounced him for that and said:
“Has he made the aalihah (many gods) (all) into One Ilaah (God — Allah). Verily, this is a curious thing!” [Quran: Surah Saad 38: Ayah 5]
These idols continued to be worshiped by the Arabs instead of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) or along with Him, until Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) sent His Messenger Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم) with the Message of Tawheed (Monotheism, belief in the Oneness of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى)). So the Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) and his Companions broke and destroyed the idols, and, truth prevailed and falsehood was vanquished:
“And say: ‘Truth (i.e. Islamic Monotheism or this Qur’aan or Jihaad against polytheists) has come and Baatil (falsehood, i.e. Satan or polytheism) has vanished. Surely, Baatil is ever bound to vanish’” [Quran: Surah al Israa’ 17: Ayah 81]
The first revelation that was sent down to the Prophet was in the cave of Hiraa’ where he used to go to worship, when Jibreel came to him and commanded him to read. The Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “I am not a reader", that is I cannot read. He was told again "Iqraah", read, and on the third time, Jibreel (عليه السلام) said to him:
“Read! In the Name of your Lord Who has created (all that exists). He has created man from a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood). Read! And your Lord is the Most Generous" [Quran: Surah al-‘Alaq 96: Ayahs 1-3]
The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) went back home, his heart pounding. He entered upon his wife Khadeejah رضی اللہ عنھا and told her what had happened, saying “I feared for myself.” She calmed him down and said, “By Allah, Allah will never forsake you, for you uphold the ties of kinship, help the weak, honour your guests, give in charity and help when someone is stricken with calamity.” Then she went with him to her cousin Waraqah ibn Nawfal, who had become a Christian. When he told him what had happened, he gave him glad tidings and told him, this is the Naamoos whom Allah sent to Moosa. He encouraged him to be patient if his people persecuted him and expelled him. The wahy, revelation, stopped for a while, and the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) was saddened by that. Then whilst he was walking one day, he saw the angel again, huge in size covering the distance between the heavens and the earth. Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم) went back to his house and wrapped himself in his blanket. Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) then revealed the words:
“O you (Muhammad) enveloped in garments! Arise and warn!” [Quran: Surah al Muddaththir 74: Ayahs 1-2]
After that, revelations came one after another to the Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم).
The Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) stayed in Makkah for thirteen years, calling for the worship of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) alone, first in secret then openly, after Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) commanded him to proclaim the truth. He called the people in a gentle and kind manner, without fighting. He called his clan and closest relatives first, then he called his people and those around them, then he called all the Arabs, and then he called all of mankind, to the worship of the one God, Allah. Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) commanded him:
“Therefore proclaim openly (Allah’s Message Islamic Monotheism) that which you are commanded, and turn away from Al Mushrikoon (polytheists, idolaters, and disbelievers)” [Quran: Surah al-Hijr 15: Ayah 94]
A few people, rich people, nobles, the weak and poor, men and women, believed in the Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) and in his message. All of them were persecuted for their faith. Some were tortured and some were killed. Some of them were forced to migrate to Abyssinia, fleeing from the persecution of Quraysh, and some of them were persecuted alongside the Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم).
When the Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) reached the age of fifty and ten years of his mission had passed, his uncle Abu Taalib, who had protected him from the worst of the persecution of Quraysh, died. Then his wife Khadeejah (رضی اللہ عنھا), who had been his consolation, also died, and the persecution of his people intensified. They harrassed him and persecuted him with all kinds of torments, and he bore it with patience, seeking the reward of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى). When the persecution of Quraysh became too intense, he went out to the town of al-Taa’if and called its people to Islam but they did not respond; instead without cause, they insulted him and threw stones at him, until his heels started to bleed. All because of his call to Monotheism, he called them to worship Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) alone.
After this Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) took His Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) on the journey of Israa wa Miraaj, the Night Journey from al-Masjid al-Haraam in Makkah to al-Masjid al-Aqsaa (in Jerusalem), riding on al-Buraaq, accompanied by Jibreel (عليه السلام) and from there to the heavens, Allah's (سبحانه و تعالى) special gift to him. In this journey he was also taken up to Sidrat al-Muntaha (the Lote-tree of the utmost boundary), and his Lord spoke to him directly and he was given the five daily prayers and returned back before the night had ended. Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) revealed the following Ayah concerning this incident:
“Glorified (and Exalted) be He (Allah) [above all that (evil) they associate with Him]. Who took His slave (Muhammad) for a journey by night from Al‑Masjid Al‑Haraam (at Makkah) to Al Masjid Al Aqsaa (in Jerusalem), the neighbourhood whereof We have blessed, in order that We might show him (Muhammad) of Our Ayaat (proofs, evidences, lessons, signs, etc.). Verily, He is the All Hearer, the All Seer" [Quran: Surah al Israa’ 17: Ayah 1]
Then Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) sent to His Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) people who would help and support him. During the Hajj season, he met a group from the tribe of Khazraj in Madeenah. They embraced Islam, then they went back to Madeenah and spread Islam there. The following year, they were over ten people, whom the Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) met, and when they left he sent Mus’ab ibn ‘Umayr (رضی اللہ عنہ) with them to teach them the Quran and Islam. Many people became Muslim through him, including the leaders of the tribe of Aws, Sa’d ibn Mu’aadh and Usayd ibn Hudayr (رضی اللہ عنھم).
Migration (Hijrah) to Madeenah
The following year when the Hajj season came, more than seventy men from al-Aws and al-Khazraj came and invited the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) to come to Madeenah after the people of Makkah had persecuted him and boycotted him. During the night of one of the days of Tashreeq, the Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) made an appointment to meet them at ‘Aqabah. When one third of the night had passed, they came out to meet him and found the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم), accompanied by his uncle al-‘Abbaas, who was not a believer, but he wanted to take care of his nephew’s affairs. Al-‘Abbaas, the Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) and the people spoke together in a pleasant manner, then the Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) accepted their oath of allegiance on the basis that he would migrate to them in Madeenah and they would protect him, support him and defend him, and Paradise would be theirs in return. They gave their oath of allegiance, one by one, then they left. Quraysh found out about them, so they set out in pursuit of them. But Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) saved them, and the Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) remained in Makkah for a while:
“Verily, Allah will help those who help His (Cause). Truly, Allah is All Strong, All Mighty” [Quran: Surah al Hajj 22: Ayah 40]
The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) then commanded his companions to migrate to Madeenah, and they migrated in groups except for those who were prevented from doing so by the mushrikeen, idolators. Soon there were no Muslims left in Makkah apart from the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم), Abu Bakr and ‘Ali (رضی اللہ عنھم). When the mushrikeen realized that the companions of the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) had migrated to Madeenah, they feared that he would join them. So they agreed to kill him. Angel Jibreel (عليه السلام) told the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) about that, so the Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) commanded ‘Ali (رضی اللہ عنہ) to sleep in his bed, and return the things that had been entrusted to the Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) to their owners. The mushrikeen spent the night at the door of the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم), waiting to kill him; yet Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) protected him and he came out in the midst of them and they did not see him. He went to the house of Abu Bakr (رضی اللہ عنہ) and the Quran tells us:
“And (remember) when the disbelievers plotted against you (O Muhammad) to imprison you, or to kill you, or to get you out (from your home, i.e. Makkah); they were plotting and Allah too was plotting; and Allah is the Best of those who plot” [Quran: Surah al Anfaal 8: Ayah 30]
The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) then resolved to migrate to Madeenah, so he and Abu Bakr (رضی اللہ عنہ) set out to the cave of Thawr and stayed there for three nights. They hired ‘Abd-Allah ibn Abi Urayqit, who was a mushrik, a polytheist, as their guide, and they let him lead their camels. The Quraysh were alarmed when he left, and they looked for him everywhere, but Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) protected His Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم). When the search for them died down, they travelled to Madeenah. When Quraysh despaired of finding them, they offered to anyone who could bring one or both of them to them two hundred camels. So the people intensified their search and on the way to Madeenah, Suraaqah ibn Maalik found them; he was a mushrik and he set out after them, so the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) prayed against him and his horse’s legs sank into the ground. So he realized that the Messenger of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) (صلى الله عليه و سلم) was protected, so he asked the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) to pray for him and said that he would not harm him. So the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) prayed for him and Suraaqah went back, and diverted the people away from them. Suraaqah became Muslim after the conquest of Makkah.
When the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) reached Madeenah, the Muslims exclaimed “Allah akbar!”, God is Great, with joy at his coming. The people came out to meet him, rejoicing. He stayed in Quba, where he and the Muslims built the mosque of Quba. He stayed there for over ten nights, then he rode on Friday and prayed Jumu’ah amongst Bani Saalim ibn ‘Awf, then he rode his camel and entered Madeenah, with the people all around him taking the reins of his camel so that he would come and stay with them. The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) told them to leave her, for she would be guided (by Allah(سبحانه و تعالى)), so she walked on until she sat down in the place where the Prophets Mosque is today.
Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) made it possible for His Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) to stay with his maternal uncles near the mosque, so he stayed in the house of Abu Ayyoob al-Ansaari, then the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) sent someone to bring his family and his daughters, and the family of Abu Bakr, from Makkah, and thus he brought them to Madeenah.
The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) and his companions then built his mosque in the place where the camel had sat down. The Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) established brotherhood (mu’aakhkhah) between the Muhaajireen, the emigrants who had escaped persecution from Makkah, and the Ansaar., the inhabitants of Madeenah The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) made a treaty with the Jewish tribes and wrote a document agreeing to peace and to defend Madeenah together. The Jewish scholar ‘Abd-Allah ibn Salaam became Muslim. In that year the Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) married ‘Aa’ishah (رضی اللہ عنھا).
In the second year, the adhaan, call to prayer, was established, and Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) changed the qiblah, direction of Prayer, from Bayt al Maqdis, in Jerusalem, to the Ka’bah, in Makkah, and the fast of Ramadaan was enjoined. The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) remained in Madeenah and the Muhaajiroon and Ansaar consolidated themselves around him. All during this time, the mushrikoon, idolators, the Jews and the hypocrites came together to oppose him; The Mushrikoon from Makkah still wanted to destroy Islam and those of Madeenah resented the rise of monotheism, Islam, and the erosion of their polytheistic beliefs, so they engaged in their plotting and planning. The Jewish tribes had traditionally supplied arms to the two tribes of Aws and Khazraj, the two main tribes of Madeenah, or Yathrib as the place was known at the time, enabling them to fight each other and thereby profitting from their mutual hostitilities, constantly siding one against the other. Islam saw to peace among the Aws and the Khazraj tribes. The Jews also made money charging interest on loans, and Islam came to do away with the payment of interest and usary, so the Jews secretly sided with the enemies of the Muslims, even though they had a treaty with the Muslims to protect Madeenah. The hypocrites where people who claimed to be Muslims, since the Muslims were in ascendence, but in reality they resented Islam since many of them had lost their position, rank and status with the arrival of Islam to Madeenah, so they bided their time for an oppotunity to destroy the Muslims and regain their lost prestige and authority over the people of Madeenah.
It was at this time that Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) revealed the permission for Muslims to fight, against those who would attack them, and the following aayah, Ayah, was revealed:
“Permission to fight (against disbelievers) is given to those (believers) who are fought against, because they have been wronged; and surely, Allah is Able to give them (believers) victory" [Quran: Surah al-Hajj 22: Ayah 39]
Then Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) supplemented that ayaah with anther:
“And fight in the way of Allah those who fight you, but transgress not the limits. Truly, Allah likes not the transgressors” [Quran: Surah al Baqarah 2: Ayah 190]
And, then Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) supported that with the following ayaah:
“and fight against the Mushrikoon (polytheists, pagans, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah) collectively as they fight against you collectively" [Quran: Surah al Tawbah 9: Ayah 36]
The Battle of Badr
The Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) fought the mushrikeen, the idolators from Makkah, who came to attack the Muslims at Badr in 2 AH, in Ramadaan, and Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) granted him victory over them and he defeated them. The battle of Badr in 2 AH, in Ramadaan, was the first major military conflict between the Muslims and the Makkans, people of Makkah. The Makkans had heard that the Muslims would attack one of their caravans and saw in this an opportunity to destroy the Muslims once and for all. Even though the caravan had escaped.
The Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) left Medeenah with 313 -319 men, 2 horses and 70 camels to go to Badr which was a stopping point for the caravans. The Makkans had sent an army of 1000 men, 100 horses and 700 camels under the leadership of Abu Jahl, one of the main persecutors of the Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم), whilst in Makkah. The Muslims crushed the Makkans, killing 72 of them including their leader Abu Jahl, and taking 70 prisoners losing 14 of their own in the process.
These prisoners of war were treated with kindness and some became Muslims. The rich prisoners paid ransom and were set free. The poorer ones were asked to gain their freedom by each teaching 10 Muslims to read and write.
The Battle of Uhud
In 3 AH the Quraysh returned to avenged their dead who were slain at Badr. The Battle of Uhud was fought on Saturday, March 19, 625 (3 Shawwal 3 AH in the Islamic calendar) at the valley located in front of Mount Uhud near Madeenah. The Makkans desired to avenge their losses at Badr and strike back at Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم) and his followers. The Muslims readied for war and the two armies fought on the slopes and plains of Mount Uhud. In the battle of Uhud the Muslims numbered 700 with 50 archers and 4 cavalry, the Makkans numbered 3000 infantry with 3000 camels 200 cavalry.
The Battle raged and the Muslims were winning until the archers disobeyed the command of the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) and broke ranks, thinking prematurely that the battle had been won, until the Makkans counter attacked, under the brilliant general Khalid bin Waleed, who later accepted Islam, and under whose leadership the Muslim armies defeated both the Roman and Persian armies in every battle he led the fighting. Meanwhile, in the battle of Uhud, the Muslims failed to achieve victory, after nearly having done so, and the Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) was injurred, due to a sustained attack by the Makkans to kill him, which failed; the Makkans went back to Makkah without having entered Madeenah or killing the Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم).
The Battle of the Trench
The Jews of Bani al-Nudayr committed treason and resolved to kill the Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) by throwing a rock on him, but Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) saved him. Then he besieged them in 4 AH and expelled them to Khaybar. Being unable to defeat the Muslims themselves the Jewish leaders tried to incite the Confederates (al-Ahzaab) against the Muslims, in order to put an end to Islam in its heartland. So the Makkans, their allies and the Jewish tribe of Ghatafaan gathered around Madeenah. The Jewish leaders promised the Makkans that if they attack Madeenah, the Jews inside the city would help them defeat the Muslims. However, at this time in Madeenah, the Jewish tribe, the Bani Qurayzah, refused to betray the Muslims and still honored the treaty they had with the Muslims.
The Battle of the Trench also known as the Battle of the Confederates, was a 27-day long siege of city of Madeenah by Arab and Jewish tribes. The strength of the confederate armies is estimated around 10,000 men with six hundred horses and some camels, while the Madeenan defenders, people of Madeenah, numbered 3,000. The battle coincided with harsh winter weather of January/February 627 A.D.
The largely outnumbered defenders of Madeenah, mostly Muslim, led by Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم), dug a trench on the suggestion of Salman Farsi, which together with Madeenah's natural fortifications, rendered the confederate cavalry (consisting of horses and camels) useless, locking the two sides in a stalemate.
The Jewish tribe of Bani Qurayzah, who had until then stood by their treaty with the Muslims, were pressed by a Jewish emissary from the enemy without, to break their promise. Eventually they agreed to do so. At this time the Muslims were already short of food supplies due to the blockade imposed upon them, the Bani Qurayzah then also imposed a blockade against the Muslims, making the situation worse, as they made preparations for war against the Muslims. The Muslims were threatened not only by the enemy beyond the trench, but by the Bani Qurayzah, from within the walls of the city. The Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) prayed for help and Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) answered the prayer by sending a sandstorm which laid waste to the tents of the confederates. The confederates left the seige, exhaused, their morale broken, leading to the lifting of the seige. Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) relates this in the Quran:
“And Allah drove back those who disbelieved in their rage: they gained no advantage (booty). Allah sufficed for the believers in the fighting (by sending against the disbelievers a severe wind and troops of angels). And Allah is Ever All Strong, All Mighty” [Quran: Surah al-Ahzaab 33: Ayah 25]
Jibreel (عليه السلام) on the instructions of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) told the Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) to deal with the Bani Qurayzah for their treachery. The Bani Qurayzah hid in their fortress and the Muslims besieged them for twenty-five days until they finally gave in. On surrendering, they asked the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) to let someone else judge their case, and he agreed. He also allowed them to choose who would give the ruling.
The Bani Qurayzah chose Sa'd ibn Mu'adh, leader of the Aws, a tribe which had always protected the Qurayzah in the past. Sa'd ibn Mu'adh, who had himself been wounded in the battle, decided that the Jews should be tried by their own Holy Law, according to which anyone who broke a treaty would be put to death. As a result all the men of the Bani Qurayzah were executed and the women and children made captive.
Treaty of al-Hudaybiyah and the farewell Hajj
In 6 AH, the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) resolved to visit the Ka’bah and perform Tawaaf around it, but the mushrikoon prevented him from doing so. He entered into a treaty with them at al-Hudaybiyah, to stop the fighting for ten years, during which time the people would be safe and could choose what they wanted. Many people became Muslims during this time, however, the Mushriks, idolators, of Makkah broke the treaty they had signed with the Muslims, so the Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) headed towards them with a large army and conquered Makkah. He cleansed the Ka’bah of the idols of the Mushriks, making it again the place of worship of Allah alone, as it was during the time of prophet Ibraheem (عليه السلام).
In 10 AH, the Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) resolved to perform Hajj, and he called the people to do likewise. Many people from Madeenah and elsewhere performed Hajj with him. He gave a great and comprehensive sermon at ‘Arafaah, in which he affirmed the just rulings of Islam. An abridged summary is as follows:
“O people, listen to my words, for I do not know if I will meet you again after this year. O people, your blood, your wealth and your honour are sacred to you as the sanctity of this day of yours, in this month of yours, in this land of yours. Every practice of the jaahiliyyah is beneath my feet and the blood feuds of the jaahiliyyah are cancelled. The first claim of blood that I abolish is that of Ibn Rabee’ah ibn al-Haarith, who was suckled among the tribe of Bani Sa’d and was killed by Hudhayl. The ribaa of the jaahiliyyah is abolished, and the first ribaa that I abolish is that of ‘Abbaas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib. It is abolished completely...
...O People, it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women, but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under Allah’s trust and with His permission. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers. And it is your right that they do not make friends with any one of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste...
... All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over black nor a black has any superiority over white except by piety (taqwa) and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to yourselves.
Remember, one day you will appear before ALLAH and answer your deeds. So beware, do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.
O People, NO PROPHET OR APOSTLE WILL COME AFTER ME AND NO NEW FAITH WILL BE BORN... I have left you with something which, if you adhere to it, you will not go astray after I am gone: the Book of Allah. If you were asked about me, what would you say?” They said: “We would bear witness that you have conveyed (the message), fulfilled (the trust) and advised us sincerely.” Then he pointed with his index finger towards the sky and then towards the people, and said, “O Allah, bear witness, O Allah bear witness,” three times.
After this Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) revealed ‘Arafaah the following ayaah:
“This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion" [Quran: Surah al Maa'idah 5: Ayah 3]
This Hajj is called Hujjat al-Wadaa’ (the Farewell Pilgrimage) because in it the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) bade farewell to the people, and he did not perform Hajj after that. Then after completing his Hajj, the Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) returned to Madeenah.
Death of the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم)
In 11 AH, in the month of Safar, the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) fell sick. When the pain became too intense, he told Abu Bakr (رضی اللہ عنہ) to lead the people in prayer. In Rabee’ al-Awwal, his sickness became worse and he (صلى الله عليه و سلم) died in the morning of Monday 12 Rabee’ al-Awwal 11 AH. The Muslims were grief-stricken by that. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) was washed (ghusl) and the Muslims offered the funeral prayer for him on the 13th, in the evening, and he was buried in the house of ‘Aa’ishah (رضی اللہ عنھا). The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) died.
Then the Muslims chose the one who had been his companion in the cave and during the Hijrah, Abu Bakr (رضی اللہ عنہ) to be their khaleefah, leader. After him, the position of khaleefah passed to ‘Umar, then to ‘Uthmaan, then to ‘Ali (رضی اللہ عنھم). These are the Khulafaa’ al-Raashidoon (the Rightly-Guided Khaleefahs).
Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) blessed His Messenger Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم) greatly and enjoined upon him noble characteristics, as He says:
“Did He not find you (O Muhammad) an orphan and gave you a refuge? And He found you unaware (of the Qur’aan, its legal laws and Prophethood) and guided you? And He found you poor and made you rich (self sufficient with self contentment)?
Therefore, treat not the orphan with oppression. And repulse not the beggar. And proclaim the Grace of your Lord (i.e. the Prophethood and all other Graces)” [Quran: Surah al Duhaa 93: Ayahs 6-11]
Allah sent His Messenger Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم) to all of mankind. He revealed to him the Qur’aan and commanded him to call people to Allah:
“O Prophet (Muhammad)! Verily, We have sent you as witness, and a bearer of glad tidings, and a warner, And as one who invites to Allah [Islamic Monotheism, i.e. to worship none but Allah (Alone)] by His Leave, and as a lamp spreading light (through your instructions from the Qur’aan and the Sunnah the legal ways of the Prophet” [Quran: Surah al-Ahzaab 33: Ayah 46]
Allah favoured His Messenger Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم) over the other Prophets in six ways, as the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:
“I have been favoured above the other Prophets in six ways: I have been given the ability of concise speech; I have been supported with fear [in the hearts of my enemies]; war booty has been made permissible for me; the earth has been made pure and a mosque [place of worship] for me; I have been sent to all of mankind; and I am the seal of the Prophets.” (Narrated by Muslim, 523)
All of mankind must believe in him and follow his sharee’ah in order to enter the Paradise of their Lord:
“and whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)) will be admitted to Gardens under which rivers flow (in Paradise), to abide therein, and that will be the great success” [Quran: Surah al Nisaa’ 4: Ayah 13]
Allah praises those among the People of the Book who believe in the Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم), and He gives them the glad tidings of a two-fold reward, as He says:
“Those to whom We gave the Scripture [i.e. the Tawraat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)] before it, they believe in it (the Qur’aan). And when it is recited to them, they say: ‘We believe in it. Verily, it is the truth from our Lord. Indeed even before it we have been from those who submit themselves to Allah in Islam as Muslims (like ‘Abdullâh bin Salâm and Salmân Al Farisî). These will be given their reward twice over, because they are patient, and repel evil with good, and spend (in charity) out of what We have provided them” [Quran: Surah al Qasas 28: Ayahs 52-54]
The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said: “There are three who will be given a two-fold reward: a man from among the People of the Book who believed in his Prophet then lived until the time of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) and believed in him and followed him – he will have two rewards…”
(From Usool al-Deen al-Islami by Muhammad ibn Ibraaheem al-Tuwayjri)